As the 1960s began, a generation was growing to adulthood which had known only the cold war. In those early years of the 1960s there was an idealistic hope. John F Kennedy had been elected as president and he talked of the torch being passed to a new generation. There were hopes that he would break the cold war deadlock and bring an end to the conflict. These hopes were dashed when he engaged in a stand-off with Nikita Khrushchev over Russian nuclear bases being built in Cuba. Kennedy was not the kind of man to back down and a tense few days ensued with the world waiting to see who would give in first. In the end, both sides gave a little; Russian returned its missiles to the Soviet Union and the US removed their missiles from Turkey. But the damage had been done and by the end of the decade both leaders would be gone; one deposed by his own parliament and the other killed by a sniper's bullet. The end of the decade was a dark time for peace. The nuclear club grew with the explosion of Chinese and French nuclear weapons, and conflicts in far away places like Egypt, Israel and Vietnam led the American people to question their country's involvement in wars that were happening in places that they had never seen and didn't care about.
The story of the mistakes and miscalculations made by both the British and German armies as they fought for control of Crete in 1941.
The Polish people were among the first to feel the full heart-stopping force of the German Wermacht. This is the story of the ways in which they fought back, including the Ghetto Uprising of 1943.
In 1966, the photographer Philip Jones Griffiths first visited Vietnam. It was an experience that would profoundly shape his career and legacy, as well as the world's understanding of the humanitarian cost of war. Griffiths captured incredible images of the victims of war and his 1971 photo journal, Vietnam Inc, transformed forever our understanding of this terrible conflict. This beautifully shot documentary gives fascinating insight into the life and legacy of a man who was a true humanitarian and whose pictures are classics of photojournalism, as powerful today as the day they were taken.
Seventy years ago, British India was divided into two countries, India and Pakistan. The repercussions of that event last till this day. Through the modern day victims of partition, we explore its legacy.
The escalation of the Cold War meant that the whole world began to take sides. Rather like children attaching themselves to gangs in the schoolyard, the two superpowers gathered teams of allies, supporters, henchmen and followers. The world became a giant chessboard, with nations as squares of the board to be captured. As the cold war became a way of life, technology moved fast to keep up the pace. The launch of the American U2 spy plane and the Russian satellite Sputnik brought about a new chapter in the cold war story; now both sides could see what the other was up to. While the US was concentrating on the threat in Europe, it nearly missed the threat appearing in its own backyard. A revolution, supported by Russia, had overthrown the ruling dictator and replaced him with the legendary Fidel Castro. This period in the Cold War's history is one of significant events and great change. The Berlin Wall appeared overnight and made East Berlin a prison, and two new players joined the game, determined not to concede any points to the other side. Nikita Khrushchev and John F Kennedy would come to symbolise a period of the Cold War where the whole world would truly have to hold its breath.
The Flying Boomerangs tour provides a cultural experience for these young Indigenous Australian rules players as they merge with local Indigenous communities in South Africa and show their skills on the park.
On the afternoon of April 29, 1992, the powder keg that was the city of Los Angeles, exploded. A jury in the all-white community of Simi Valley had just found four white LAPD officers not guilty in the brutal, videotaped beating of an African American taxi driver named Rodney King. Roiling resentment against the police, which under Chief Daryl Gates had an "us against them" mentality, turned the City of Angeles into a war zone. In South Central, motorists were pulled from their vehicles and beaten. Television viewers saw one white man, Reginald Denny, pulled from his tractor trailer, beaten to a pulp and then witnessed a rioter slam a huge cinder block into the Denny's head while he lay helpless on the ground. The LA riots had begun. For six days the city was under siege, taken over mostly by thugs who used the King verdict as an excuse to run rampant. Stores were looted. Korean shop owners armed themselves and shot anyone who tried to storm their stores. Hundreds of fires burned for days, making LA resemble the oil fields of Iraq when Saddam Hussein's fleeing troops set alight oil wells in the desert. Police abandoned entire neighbourhoods, instead trying to protect upscale enclaves like West Hollywood and Beverly Hills. Daryl Gates said during a press conference "Let it burn". Long standing scores between gangs, neighbours and anyone with a grudge were violently settled.
From the ruins of world war the battle lines of the cold war had emerged. Old wartime alliances had dissolved and friends and enemies had changed place. The weapons of war had also changed; the building of nuclear weapons had changed the rules and each side now raced to develop their own nuclear capabilities. The US had been first but when Russia detonated its own nuclear bomb in 1949 the impetus to build ever more destructive weapons accelerated. In Episode Three of the series we examine how the rise of Communism in countries all over the globe made the cold war not just a fight for land but a fight for the minds of the people of the world. As China becomes a communist regime the US begins to fear the spread of these new politics with an almost maniacal ferocity. As always throughout history, the tide of change brings fear and suspicion and US Senator Joseph McCarthy begins his witch-hunts and suspected spies are caught and executed. The cold war was a game where each side knew the limits but as a new decade dawned there appeared to be no chance of the cold war thawing out any time soon.
After the German invasion of 1940, the Norwegian government fled to London, leaving the country in the hands of the collaborator Quisling. But there were many willing people to fight back.
Four kings from the House of Stuart sat on the English throne from 1603 to 1688. It was a time of great religious struggle and political instability. The Gunpowder Plot nearly wiped out King James I. The Thirty Years War broke out on the continent. London was ravaged by the plague and the Great Fire of London. A civil war erupted which led to the public beheading of King Charles I and the birth of a commonwealth headed by Oliver Cromwell. Throughout this series we look at the reign of the Stuarts through the powerful Wynn family at Gwydir Castle in North Wales; one of the best preserved time capsules from that era. The story of the Wynn family reflects the turbulent history of this Stuart era. They had close connections with this new royal house and their status would rise and fall with the successes and failures of Stuart rule.
Hugh is surprised to learn bottles of fruit juice and smoothies can contain as much sugar as a can of fizzy pop. He is also confused that the labels on the bottles seem to suggest that anything up to 330ml is a single portion size, when, in fact, the government recommends not drinking any more than 150ml of juice or smoothie a day. Hugh also turns the spotlight on our most popular high street restaurant chains, because children are eating out twice as much as they did in the 1970s. He challenges the restaurants to reduce the amount of sugar in their puddings, to put calorie information on their children's menus, and to stop selling bottomless fizzy drinks. Meanwhile, up in Newcastle, it is six months since Hugh launched his attempt to change the eating habits of a whole city. It has gotten off to a slow start, but after staging a big exercise event on High Street, and with Ross Noble's help on social media, it soon starts to take off.
For years, Tom Carroll was known as one of Australia's greatest sportsmen, but until a recent exhibition, few knew that at the same time, he and his camera were also capturing the rise of surfing and it's edgy culture.
The story of the cold war proves that an individual can leave his or her mark on history. It is certain that the personalities of the leaders of America and the Soviet Union in those first post war years shaped history and plotted the path of world events. The second episode of this series examines how America solidified its position as a new superpower and how the Soviet Union, under the iron fist of Stalin, continued to spread the word of communism. Britain, exhausted by world war and lacking in resources, began to break up her Empire. Britain gradually reduced its position on the world stage and America stepped in to fill the void. At the same time the relationship that had developed between Russia and the US during the final stages of World War II slowly began to disintegrate as both sides grew to see the other as a threat to their respective ideals.
Historian and curator Lucy Worsley and Strictly Come Dancing star Len Goodman, take to the floor to reveal the untold story of British dance. This three part series offers a fascinating insight into British society, exploring how the nation's love of dance has always been more than just mastering the moves and feeling the rhythm. It's about sex and seduction, power and politics, economics and of course, romance. They explore how dancing went from being frowned upon as dangerous and debauched in the 17th century to being celebrated as an essential social skill in the 18th century.
Could a series of giant standing stones constructed some 12,000 years ago in Turkey represent the beginnings of the first civilised society and the birth of religion?
An exploration of the stories behind the resistance groups that formed to fight the Third Reich during World War II. These took many practical forms. Guerrilla forces of all sizes fought military actions against Axis troops; clandestine civilian organisations performed acts of sabotage or espionage; religious groups led acts of civil disruption and protest and underground presses spread prohibited ideas and information. Who were the men and women who made up the resistance movements?
Relive Hitler's final days, detailed through never-before-seen interviews with the men and women who were with him during those last desperate moments.