Intercultural Understanding

From Fortnite to Candy Crush, for many people video games are a source of entertainment, relaxation, a chance to build friendships, or a career.
But for a minority, games can be a problem.
With 67 per cent of Australians playing video games, and 97 per cent of households with children having video games, Insight asks, “how much is too much? When does video gaming stop being fun?”
Laurie Darby represents the fastest growing segment of the population new to games - the over 65s. Retired and living alone, she tells Jenny Brockie that she checks in daily with her family and friends by playing word games on her mobile.
Zion, 11, loves playing Fortnite with his friends, and his mother, Rosie, works hard to set boundaries around his gaming. “He has other responsibilities he has to do first, like his homework, and walking and picking up after the dog,” she explains.
For Taei Aluni and Maddelin Walster, video games are a source of tension. Taei would keep playing if he was allowed to, but Maddelin says he’s “like a vacant partner” when he’s on the games, and it’s affecting their family.
In the wake of the World Health Organisation including “gaming disorder” in its latest International Classification of Diseases, Insight considers whether or not it’s the personality of the gamer, or features built into the games themselves, which sees some people become hooked, while others manage to keep it just for fun.

Insight: Game On

News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding

Years 9-10, 11-12 News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding
52:16
From Fortnite to Candy Crush, for many people video games are a source of entertainment, relaxation, a chance to build friendships, or a career. But for a minority, games can be a problem. With 67 per cent of Australians playing video games, and 97 per cent of households with children having video games, Insight asks, “how much is too much? When does video gaming stop being fun?” Laurie Darby represents the fastest growing segment of the population new to games - the over 65s. Retired and living alone, she tells Jenny Brockie that she checks in daily with her family and friends by playing word games on her mobile. Zion, 11, loves playing Fortnite with his friends, and his mother, Rosie, works hard to set boundaries around his gaming. “He has other responsibilities he has to do first, like his homework, and walking and picking up after the dog,” she explains. For Taei Aluni and Maddelin Walster, video games are a source of tension. Taei would keep playing if he was allowed to, but Maddelin says he’s “like a vacant partner” when he’s on the games, and it’s affecting their family. In the wake of the World Health Organisation including “gaming disorder” in its latest International Classification of Diseases, Insight considers whether or not it’s the personality of the gamer, or features built into the games themselves, which sees some people become hooked, while others manage to keep it just for fun.
Tara Westover grew up with radical, survivalist parents in rural Idaho who didn’t believe in doctors, hospitals and mainstream education. At 17, Westover decided to educate herself as a means of escape. She got into university but academically she missed out on learning about events in history including the holocaust and the civil rights movement. She also struggled socially.
Ben Shenton was raised in a notorious Australian cult called The Family. At 18 months of age his mother handed him over to a woman called Anne Hamilton-Byrne whose followers of the cult believed was Jesus Christ reincarnated.
Shenton lived on an isolated property two hours from Melbourne. There was physical abuse and at times the children were deprived of food. Ben was 15 when police raided the property and he began a new chapter in his life.
Emma Gingerich was raised in an Amish family in Ohio and Missouri. They had no electricity or running water and had very little contact with the outside world.
Gingerich was only allowed to be educated to grade eight and there was no science or geography, only reading, writing and maths. 
At 18 she left her family and the Amish community. Her transition to the outside world wasn’t easy and she says she was raped soon after leaving.
The Atchley family live in a remote part of Alaska, four hours from the nearest town. They only got the Internet this year and admit they struggle to keep up with current events and popular culture.
Their 14-year-old son, Sky, lives with them and is home-schooled. Since discovering the Internet Sky wants to become an online gaming commentator and says this might involve him one day leaving his family home and moving to the city.

Insight: Isolated

News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding

Years 9-10, 11-12 News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding
51:18
Tara Westover grew up with radical, survivalist parents in rural Idaho who didn’t believe in doctors, hospitals and mainstream education. At 17, Westover decided to educate herself as a means of escape. She got into university but academically she missed out on learning about events in history including the holocaust and the civil rights movement. She also struggled socially. Ben Shenton was raised in a notorious Australian cult called The Family. At 18 months of age his mother handed him over to a woman called Anne Hamilton-Byrne whose followers of the cult believed was Jesus Christ reincarnated. Shenton lived on an isolated property two hours from Melbourne. There was physical abuse and at times the children were deprived of food. Ben was 15 when police raided the property and he began a new chapter in his life. Emma Gingerich was raised in an Amish family in Ohio and Missouri. They had no electricity or running water and had very little contact with the outside world. Gingerich was only allowed to be educated to grade eight and there was no science or geography, only reading, writing and maths. At 18 she left her family and the Amish community. Her transition to the outside world wasn’t easy and she says she was raped soon after leaving. The Atchley family live in a remote part of Alaska, four hours from the nearest town. They only got the Internet this year and admit they struggle to keep up with current events and popular culture. Their 14-year-old son, Sky, lives with them and is home-schooled. Since discovering the Internet Sky wants to become an online gaming commentator and says this might involve him one day leaving his family home and moving to the city.
If you’ve ever wondered about how long (or short) your attention span is, or perhaps even worried that there’s something seriously wrong with your ability to pay attention – you’re not alone. 

Insight guest Leanne became concerned about her attention span when she caught up with an old friend over lunch, but couldn’t stop checking her phone and thinking about what else she could be doing – like scrolling through her Facebook. 

At home, she says she gets distracted by something as trivial as a bad smell, or the noise of someone mowing the lawn. It can take her off task and take up her attention for the entire day.

This week on Insight, Leanne’s attention is tested and the findings surprise her.

And guest host Janice Petersen asks the “5 billion dollar question,” as neuroscientist, Associate Professor Paul Dux puts it – can we train, and even increase our attention spans? And how do you do it?

When the stakes are as high as a plane full of people, or a life on the operating table – how can that affect your ability to hold attention, and what can happen if you don’t? 

“The worst case is that two aircraft collide and a catastrophic failure in the system occurs,” air traffic controller Tom McRobert says.

For neurosurgeon Nazih Asaad, the consequences can also be fatal and with the trust of the patient in his hands, the potential risks of the surgery can weigh on him in the lead up to the operation.

AFL player for the GWS Giants Heath Shaw was diagnosed with ADHD when he was a teenager. He says some of the behaviours have followed him into adulthood and on the field.

Insight asks – what is attention, and how can it impact your life? How do you know if your attention span is normal? And what makes some people better at paying attention than others?

Insight: Attention

News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding

Years 9-10, 11-12 News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding
53:43
If you’ve ever wondered about how long (or short) your attention span is, or perhaps even worried that there’s something seriously wrong with your ability to pay attention – you’re not alone. Insight guest Leanne became concerned about her attention span when she caught up with an old friend over lunch, but couldn’t stop checking her phone and thinking about what else she could be doing – like scrolling through her Facebook. At home, she says she gets distracted by something as trivial as a bad smell, or the noise of someone mowing the lawn. It can take her off task and take up her attention for the entire day. This week on Insight, Leanne’s attention is tested and the findings surprise her. And guest host Janice Petersen asks the “5 billion dollar question,” as neuroscientist, Associate Professor Paul Dux puts it – can we train, and even increase our attention spans? And how do you do it? When the stakes are as high as a plane full of people, or a life on the operating table – how can that affect your ability to hold attention, and what can happen if you don’t? “The worst case is that two aircraft collide and a catastrophic failure in the system occurs,” air traffic controller Tom McRobert says. For neurosurgeon Nazih Asaad, the consequences can also be fatal and with the trust of the patient in his hands, the potential risks of the surgery can weigh on him in the lead up to the operation. AFL player for the GWS Giants Heath Shaw was diagnosed with ADHD when he was a teenager. He says some of the behaviours have followed him into adulthood and on the field. Insight asks – what is attention, and how can it impact your life? How do you know if your attention span is normal? And what makes some people better at paying attention than others?
Jenny Brockie takes a look at why people are suffering from more food insecurities.
Once or twice a week, Sunita and her husband go without a meal so their two children can have something to eat. Other times, they turn to Weet-Bix for breakfast, lunch and dinner.
A growing number of Australians are going hungry. CEO of Foodbank, Australia’s largest hunger relief organisation, Brianna Casey says 3.6 million Australians have been food insecure in the last 12 months – including one in five children.
Renee and Grant’s lives changed overnight when Grant had an accident at work. The pair suddenly found themselves struggling to afford food for their family of six, while trying to keep up with mortgage repayments and other bills. Even with the help of a community food program that provides low cost groceries, they both say they still skip meals each week so their children can eat.

Aunty Lena, a member of the Stolen Generations, has three adult children, four grandchildren and three great-grandchildren living under her roof. With only her aged pension for income, she struggles to feed her large family after paying the rent and electricity, but she’s resolved to keeping her household together.
She mostly chooses the food her grandchildren want to eat from a local food relief program, and says meat is a luxury.
Charities and food rescue organisations have stepped up to help provide nutritious food and hot meals for those who might otherwise go without. And thousands of schools across the country are now running breakfast clubs to make sure their students have a healthy meal to start the school day.
But Brianna admits food relief programs are “a bandaid over a gaping wound,” and that while sourcing food for those in need is crucial, it doesn’t get to the root cause of food insecurity.
This week, Insight asks – who’s going hungry in Australia, and why?

Insight: Hungry

News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding

Years 9-10, 11-12 News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding
52:48
Jenny Brockie takes a look at why people are suffering from more food insecurities. Once or twice a week, Sunita and her husband go without a meal so their two children can have something to eat. Other times, they turn to Weet-Bix for breakfast, lunch and dinner. A growing number of Australians are going hungry. CEO of Foodbank, Australia’s largest hunger relief organisation, Brianna Casey says 3.6 million Australians have been food insecure in the last 12 months – including one in five children. Renee and Grant’s lives changed overnight when Grant had an accident at work. The pair suddenly found themselves struggling to afford food for their family of six, while trying to keep up with mortgage repayments and other bills. Even with the help of a community food program that provides low cost groceries, they both say they still skip meals each week so their children can eat. Aunty Lena, a member of the Stolen Generations, has three adult children, four grandchildren and three great-grandchildren living under her roof. With only her aged pension for income, she struggles to feed her large family after paying the rent and electricity, but she’s resolved to keeping her household together. She mostly chooses the food her grandchildren want to eat from a local food relief program, and says meat is a luxury. Charities and food rescue organisations have stepped up to help provide nutritious food and hot meals for those who might otherwise go without. And thousands of schools across the country are now running breakfast clubs to make sure their students have a healthy meal to start the school day. But Brianna admits food relief programs are “a bandaid over a gaping wound,” and that while sourcing food for those in need is crucial, it doesn’t get to the root cause of food insecurity. This week, Insight asks – who’s going hungry in Australia, and why?
Sizing up Steroids
Casey, 29, started using steroids a couple of years ago when he found out he had low testosterone. He bought testosterone on the black market and then started taking other anabolic steroids. He found a YouTube channel that he says showed him how to use safely. He also got information through online forums where users talk about what to take and for how long. He says he’s had no side effects because he takes low doses.
Anthony started using anabolic steroids when he was 16. He says the results he was getting naturally weren’t enough. He first started using testosterone and quickly moved onto stronger substances because he says progression was a drug in itself. Despite some side effects, he says he would look forward to injecting steroids because he knew each time he used, it would mean a better work out and bigger body.
‘Brian’ spent two years researching anabolic steroids before he started taking them. He got information from online forums where he says medically minded users discuss dosages and substances. He does what’s called ‘cruising’ and ‘blasting’ where he takes substances for 12 weeks and then comes off them. He says his side effects have included testicle shrinkage and delays in ejaculation when having sex. He disagrees with the laws in NSW and Queensland which classify steroids the same as heroin and amphetamines. He thinks they don’t match the reality of the situation.
‘Stan’ has seven convictions for importing, manufacturing and using steroids. At one point he was making anabolic steroids which he says are very easy to manufacture. He would make up to $4000 profit a week. He was also diagnosed with muscle dysmorphia when he was 18 and used it as a defence in court. He stopped using after his last arrest.
Prof. Ann Conway is an Endocrinologist who specialises in male diseases and conditions. She says there is no safe level of using steroids when not prescribed by a doctor. She says using can cause suppression of reproductive system, effect fertility, damage the liver and cause cardiac issues. She doesn't think GPs should be helping people use steroids safely but instead telling them to stop using.
Insight talks to users, former users, doctors and lawyers about who is using steroids, why they use and how that use is managed in Australia.

Insight: Sizing Up Steroids

News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding

Years 9-10, 11-12 News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding
54:31
Sizing up Steroids Casey, 29, started using steroids a couple of years ago when he found out he had low testosterone. He bought testosterone on the black market and then started taking other anabolic steroids. He found a YouTube channel that he says showed him how to use safely. He also got information through online forums where users talk about what to take and for how long. He says he’s had no side effects because he takes low doses. Anthony started using anabolic steroids when he was 16. He says the results he was getting naturally weren’t enough. He first started using testosterone and quickly moved onto stronger substances because he says progression was a drug in itself. Despite some side effects, he says he would look forward to injecting steroids because he knew each time he used, it would mean a better work out and bigger body. ‘Brian’ spent two years researching anabolic steroids before he started taking them. He got information from online forums where he says medically minded users discuss dosages and substances. He does what’s called ‘cruising’ and ‘blasting’ where he takes substances for 12 weeks and then comes off them. He says his side effects have included testicle shrinkage and delays in ejaculation when having sex. He disagrees with the laws in NSW and Queensland which classify steroids the same as heroin and amphetamines. He thinks they don’t match the reality of the situation. ‘Stan’ has seven convictions for importing, manufacturing and using steroids. At one point he was making anabolic steroids which he says are very easy to manufacture. He would make up to $4000 profit a week. He was also diagnosed with muscle dysmorphia when he was 18 and used it as a defence in court. He stopped using after his last arrest. Prof. Ann Conway is an Endocrinologist who specialises in male diseases and conditions. She says there is no safe level of using steroids when not prescribed by a doctor. She says using can cause suppression of reproductive system, effect fertility, damage the liver and cause cardiac issues. She doesn't think GPs should be helping people use steroids safely but instead telling them to stop using. Insight talks to users, former users, doctors and lawyers about who is using steroids, why they use and how that use is managed in Australia.
Jenny Brockie takes a look at what happens when coal seam gas comes to town. Steven Jones, a Narrabri local of 35 years, lives on 800 acres near the NSW Pilliga Forest. Part of his property falls within the boundaries of a proposed coal seam gas drilling area.
After living next door to exploration gas wells, he says he would be happy to have the wells on his property and doesn’t have any concerns with this type of resource being developed in the region. “As long as the government keeps an eye on it to make sure they don’t do wrong…I’m 100 per cent for them.”

But some Narrabri locals are less certain. Jon-Maree wouldn’t be happy to have the wells on her land out of concern about the potential environmental effects, in particular the risk to the region’s water supply.
“I think it's really important to understand that a rural property, without water, is nothing. Without water our communities don't function.”
That’s a concern shared by many vocal opponents from Coonamble, a small rural town, almost 200km from the proposed project area.
Adam and Rowena Macrae are farmers who have poured money into their almost 4,000 acre property.
Part of a 461km pipeline, that will transport the gas from the project to the NSW market, is slated to be built under their land.
They feel there is too much uncertainty around the project and its associated infrastructure.
“I think that the risks are too high and we're not prepared to take those risks with our family.”
Gas company Santos has overseen exploration in the area in recent years and says these wells could provide up to 50 per cent of NSW’s gas needs. Last year, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull urged the NSW Government to approve the Narrabri Gas Project.
But local opinion about the project is divided. More than 23,000 submissions were received by the NSW Department of Planning, making it the most protested project in the history of the department.
With a looming domestic gas shortage on the horizon and the region awaiting to hear whether the project gets given the green light by the NSW Government, a special edition of Insight travels to Narrabri to hear from those who may be affected by the project and its infrastructure.

Insight: Gassy Coonamble

News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding

Years 9-10, 11-12 News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding
52:36
Jenny Brockie takes a look at what happens when coal seam gas comes to town. Steven Jones, a Narrabri local of 35 years, lives on 800 acres near the NSW Pilliga Forest. Part of his property falls within the boundaries of a proposed coal seam gas drilling area. After living next door to exploration gas wells, he says he would be happy to have the wells on his property and doesn’t have any concerns with this type of resource being developed in the region. “As long as the government keeps an eye on it to make sure they don’t do wrong…I’m 100 per cent for them.” But some Narrabri locals are less certain. Jon-Maree wouldn’t be happy to have the wells on her land out of concern about the potential environmental effects, in particular the risk to the region’s water supply. “I think it's really important to understand that a rural property, without water, is nothing. Without water our communities don't function.” That’s a concern shared by many vocal opponents from Coonamble, a small rural town, almost 200km from the proposed project area. Adam and Rowena Macrae are farmers who have poured money into their almost 4,000 acre property. Part of a 461km pipeline, that will transport the gas from the project to the NSW market, is slated to be built under their land. They feel there is too much uncertainty around the project and its associated infrastructure. “I think that the risks are too high and we're not prepared to take those risks with our family.” Gas company Santos has overseen exploration in the area in recent years and says these wells could provide up to 50 per cent of NSW’s gas needs. Last year, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull urged the NSW Government to approve the Narrabri Gas Project. But local opinion about the project is divided. More than 23,000 submissions were received by the NSW Department of Planning, making it the most protested project in the history of the department. With a looming domestic gas shortage on the horizon and the region awaiting to hear whether the project gets given the green light by the NSW Government, a special edition of Insight travels to Narrabri to hear from those who may be affected by the project and its infrastructure.
Solo Parents
More and more single women are making the choice to become solo parents. As fertility deadlines approach, a new generation of women aren’t prepared to wait forever for 'Mr Right' to come along and risk missing out on the opportunity to have a child if a partner doesn’t arrive in time.
So Plan B is now a popular option: to go it alone with the help of a sperm donor. IVF clinics around the country are reporting the demand for donor sperm by single women is soaring as women are taking things into their own hands and fulfilling their dreams of being a mother.
Forty-one year old Anita Fox is typical of a number of professional women who've decided in their late thirties to have a baby without a partner. After a divorce, Anita didn’t want another relationship - but did want a baby - and she’s now a proud mother of two year-old Grace.
Amanda Hendren decided in her late thirties that she wanted to become a solo mum, and soon after gave birth to baby Elijha.  But in the first few years she was hit with depression and discovered, much to her shock, that motherhood “didn’t give me any value”. It took her several years to really settle into the role.
Stephanie Holt, at 26, decided she didn't want to wait to meet the right man to be the father of her children, and embarked on IVF treatment to become a solo mum. She gave birth to a healthy baby boy.
We speak to a number of women like Anita, Stephanie and Amanda who’ve chosen the donor sperm path, about the joys and challenges of solo parenting. We also speak to those in the process of trying to become solo parents via IVF and the children of single mothers by choice to reflect on the long term implications of being brought into the world via donor conception. 
And it’s not only women choosing to solo parent. A growing number of men are also choosing pursue parenthood alone, like Anthony Stralow, a single dad of three children who used two overseas surrogates and an egg donor to create the family he’d always wanted.
On Insight we examine the growing child-rearing trend of solo parenting by choice.

Insight: Solo Parents

News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding

Years 9-10, 11-12 News and current affairs, Intercultural understanding
53:29
Solo Parents More and more single women are making the choice to become solo parents. As fertility deadlines approach, a new generation of women aren’t prepared to wait forever for 'Mr Right' to come along and risk missing out on the opportunity to have a child if a partner doesn’t arrive in time. So Plan B is now a popular option: to go it alone with the help of a sperm donor. IVF clinics around the country are reporting the demand for donor sperm by single women is soaring as women are taking things into their own hands and fulfilling their dreams of being a mother. Forty-one year old Anita Fox is typical of a number of professional women who've decided in their late thirties to have a baby without a partner. After a divorce, Anita didn’t want another relationship - but did want a baby - and she’s now a proud mother of two year-old Grace. Amanda Hendren decided in her late thirties that she wanted to become a solo mum, and soon after gave birth to baby Elijha. But in the first few years she was hit with depression and discovered, much to her shock, that motherhood “didn’t give me any value”. It took her several years to really settle into the role. Stephanie Holt, at 26, decided she didn't want to wait to meet the right man to be the father of her children, and embarked on IVF treatment to become a solo mum. She gave birth to a healthy baby boy. We speak to a number of women like Anita, Stephanie and Amanda who’ve chosen the donor sperm path, about the joys and challenges of solo parenting. We also speak to those in the process of trying to become solo parents via IVF and the children of single mothers by choice to reflect on the long term implications of being brought into the world via donor conception. And it’s not only women choosing to solo parent. A growing number of men are also choosing pursue parenthood alone, like Anthony Stralow, a single dad of three children who used two overseas surrogates and an egg donor to create the family he’d always wanted. On Insight we examine the growing child-rearing trend of solo parenting by choice.
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